Schwartz, D. L., & Hartman, K. (2007). It is not television anymore: Designing digital video for learning and assessment. In Goldman, R., Pea, R., Barron, B., & Derry, S.J. (Eds.), Video research in learning science (pp. 349-366). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrance Erlbaum Associates.
This article explores how designed video technology can be a powerful factor in learning, and how it can be embedded in multimedia environments. It also gives suggestions for educational researchers and instructional designers to use video for assessment. It provides a framework for using video in multimedia contexts and describes how different genres of video can support different types of learning. It outlines four common learning outcomes of utilizing video for learning: (1) Seeing, in which video enables students to see things they haven’t seen in person, and gives opportunities to have the learner to leverage the visual medium to absorb large amounts of information without the logistical challenges and dilemmas that verbal only content presentation (i.e. text) provides. (2) Engaging, in which the video can help to draw a learner in and keep them involved, providing a cognitive context leveraging the visual senses. The authors also compare how video exploits the extrinsic and intrinsic motivations to learn, emphasizing how learning is inherently intrinsic, but the extrinsic value of absorbing an engaging video event can contribute to engagement. It also gives opportunities for learners to leverage prior knowledge, providing an anchor to build meaning from future learning experiences. (3) Doing, in which models of skills and behaviors desired by the learner, can be visually rendered and/or simulated. The student’s attitude is affected and skills can be acquired through viewing, emulating and practicing these models. As the learner builds on previous knowledge through these models, how their knowledge, skills and capability matures can be assessed dynamically. (4) Saying, in which students can verbalize what they’ve learned from the video, demonstrating the effectiveness of new knowledge acquisition. The learner’s ability to verbalize facts and explain their newly acquired knowledge can be assessed from. The effectiveness of the knowledge transfer is much more pronounced when the learner has prior knowledge to decipher and decode what the video presents.
Video can be a powerful tool for the learning sciences, when designed well while providing content for learning activities, and for assessing their effectiveness. For example, practitioners can embed video to support learning, whether it is newly designed and created or video from archival sources. Video can be a very useful assessment tool, requiring the student to look at something, and to find out what knowledge was gleaned from the video learning experience. It also generates different motivations for learners to prepare for and to engage in learning opportunities. Video content as a learning strategy enables students to scaffold on skills and knowledge modeled in the video, leading to intellectual growth. It can be useful for project-based learning, be the basis for collaborative activities, and used to trigger other types of content absorption while being a catalyst to synthesize multiple sources of information for knowledge acquisition. Visual media has evolved and improved, and now there is exponential growth of digitized old and new digital video, the acceleration of learning through utilizing visual media will continue. The systems, networks and processes that enable today’s proliferation of video will fuel further innovation in video learning.
This article provides foundational literature for an area in need of scholarly articles on digital video for instructional purposes. It also presents ideas for teachers to incorporate video into their pedagogical activities, including using it independently for student learning, incorporating and embedding it into LMS shells and other multimedia content, and other instructional resources. As an educational technology, researchers can utilize instances of designed video within the suite of multimedia technologies delivered and utilized for instructional and experimental purposes, because it provides learning opportunities that involves seeing, engaging, doing, and saying which establishes, compels, reinforces and forms the basis for assessment. In addition, by understanding how learning can be enhanced and affected by digital video, we can continue to analyze, design and build systems for learning that are comprehensively inclusive of a combination of media including text, hypertext, audio, computer simulations and digital video. As learning science evolves, we may find that incorporating multiple media in the learning process will lead to better outcomes, especially given the digital nature of the learning environments that are emerging.