Brophy, J. E. & Gamoran Sherin, M. (2004). Using video in teacher education. Chapter 1: NEW PERSPECTIVES ON THE ROLE OF VIDEO IN TEACHER EDUCATION, Amsterdam: JAI.
This article first gives a historical perspective over the past 40 years of the role that video has played in teacher education, and how video affords teacher training and education, examines the effectiveness of using video for teacher learning, with some mixed results. It shows how video can be an innovative way to teach teachers to teach, and to develop teachers professionally. The historical background shows the evolution of capability of analog video of the past, to digitized video currently, to deployment of it via the Internet in what the author calls video networks. The author points out that as video costs continue to go down, it is more accessible and useful both in real and virtual classrooms and for use in teacher professional development. It helps to provide an alternative to live environments and may contribute to teacher motivation. It also outlines various uses for video in teacher education such as using it to teach at a scaled-down, micro-level, or “Microteaching” where the class size or duration was smaller and needed different instructional strategies. Microteaching provides new opportunities for teachers to conduct whole-class discussions, and became a standard way to deliver teacher education. Another technique used in teacher education is interaction analysis, or lesson analysis, where teachers used video to observe and analyze student-teacher interactions. In addition, video can be used to model expert teaching, enabling developing teachers to examine how more experienced teachers think instead of just observing their behavior. In additon, the article provided a number of ways to leverage video for student learning. Such things included video-based cases, including narratives, analysis and subsequent discussions which provided novice teachers with rich instances of problems to decipher and solve within the classroom environment. In addition, the article refers to the integration of video into hypermedia, enabling the video to be delivered in a more intuitive manner, paralleling the ways in which people think. Another key point is how the author states that video is an immutable/unchangeble, lasting and permanent record, which can be viewed and reviewed many times, relieving the teacher from having to remember everything which happened in a scenario
This chapter is an interesting account of how video, now predominantly digital, can be used not only to teach students, but to teach teachers. Because of the flexibility of video embedded in hypermedia or delivered through the Internet, this technology has a far reaching effect. Video is a powerful medium and now as it is carried on networks, captured in so many settings and environments, it is a key way to learn. Video also can provide a clear account of the classroom environment for study, as well as content-based instruction. It shows that video, by modeling expert teaching scenario’s to newer teachers, can be an effective way to empower teachers in training to emulate and replicate good teaching practices. Novice teachers can learn new strategies to become better pedagogists. The use of these video-based strategies could lead to innovative new techniques since they allow building off of rich examples, leveraging and scaffolding to higher value and more effective techniques. And, the analysis and review of mentor teacher examples can give the novice teacher ways to become expert teachers, through reflection and discussion and through practical implementation of these strategies. It can allow the developing teacher to observer and analyze student interactions and classroom practices.
Video can play a great role in educational research, learning science and the study of educational technology, and should be a key part of the suite of media and data sources we use for research. Since researchers are by nature teachers, using video for teaching teachers is instructive for researchers to use video for research. This article provides a perspective on seeing how video has been used, is now used and can be used in the future for teaching purposes to both teacher/learners and students. Since video is a permanent record of events and occurrences of teaching and learning situations, researchers can use it as a focused study aid and tool for doing research. It can be used for data gathering of the sort which defies just quantitative data and qualitative data through interviews and the like. Through having a video record, new systems and approaches can be invented to perform research with video-based data. In addition, since new technologies for searching image and video content are being developed by Google and others, this article will serve as a reminder of where we came from in terms of using video for basic training purposes, to video becoming a major source of research studies.